# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

T cell

One type of white blood cell that attacks virus-infected cells, foreign cells, and cancer cells. T cells also produce a number of substances that regulate the immune response.

T138067

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called mitotic inhibitors. It inhibits the growth of cancer cells by preventing cell division.

T-3

A thyroid hormone. Also called triiodothyronine or liothyronine sodium.

T4N5 liposomal lotion

Enzyme lotion used in treating xeroderma pigmentosum.

T900607

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called tubulin-binding agents.

TAC-101

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called synthetic retinoids and angiogenesis inhibitors.

tachycardia

Rapid beating of the heart, usually defined as greater than 100 beats per minute.

tachypnea

Rapid breathing.

tacrolimus

A drug used to help reduce the risk of rejection by the body of organ and bone marrow transplants.

TAG-72 antigen

A protein/sugar complex found on the surface of many cancer cells, including breast, colon, and pancreatic cells.

talampanel

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of brain tumors and other brain disorders, such as epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. It belongs to the family of drugs called AMPA receptor antagonists.

talaporfin sodium

A drug used in photodynamic therapy. When absorbed by cancer cells and exposed to light, the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells.

tamoxifen (ta-MOK-si-FEN)

A drug used to treat breast cancer, and to prevent it in women who are at a high risk of developing breast cancer. Tamoxifen blocks the effects of the hormone estrogen in the breast. It belongs to the family of drugs called antiestrogens.

targeted therapy

A type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells. A monoclonal antibody is a type of targeted therapy.

tariquidar

A substance that is being studied for its ability to overcome tumor-cell resistance to anticancer drugs. It belongs to the family of drugs called anthranilic acid derivatives. Also called XR9576.

taurolidine

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called anti-infectives.

taxane

A drug that inhibits cell growth by stopping cell division. Taxanes are used as treatments for cancer. Also called antimitotic or antimicrotubule agents or mitotic inhibitors. Docetaxel and paclitaxel are taxanes.

T-cell depletion

Treatment to destroy T cells, which play an important role in the immune response. Elimination of T cells from a bone marrow graft from a donor may reduce the chance of an immune reaction against the recipient's tissues.

T-cell lymphoma (lim-FO-ma)

A disease in which certain cells of the lymph system (called T lymphocytes) become cancerous.

technetium Tc 99m dextran

A radiolabeled substance that is used in cancer diagnosis.

technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid

A radiolabeled substance that is used to help identify sites of tumor development.

tegafur

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites.

teicoplanin

A substance used to treat bacterial infections. It belongs to the family of drugs called antibiotics.

telangiectasia (tel-AN-gee-ek-TAY-zha)

The permanent enlargement of blood vessels, causing redness in the skin or mucous membranes.

Telcyta (tel-SY-tuh)

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called glutathione analogs. Also called TLK286.

temoporfin

An anticancer drug that is also used in cancer prevention. It belongs to the family of drugs called photosensitizing agents.

temozolomide

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

temsirolimus (TEM-ser-OH-lih-mus)

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called rapamycin analogs. Also called CCI-779.

teniposide

An anticancer drug that is a podophyllotoxin derivative and belongs to the family of drugs called mitotic inhibitors.

TENS

Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation. A technique in which mild electric currents are applied to some areas of the skin by a small power pack connected to two electrodes.

teratoma (ter-a-TOW-ma)

A type of germ cell tumor that may contain several different types of tissue, such as hair, muscle, and bone. Teratomas occur most often in the ovaries in women, the testicles in men, and the tailbone in children. Not all teratomas are malignant.

terminal disease

Disease that cannot be cured and will cause death.

testicle (TES-tih-kul)

One of two egg-shaped glands found inside the scrotum that produce sperm and male hormones. Also called a testis.

testimonial

Information provided by an individual who claims to have been helped or cured by a particular product. The information provided lacks the necessary elements to be evaluated in a rigorous and scientific manner and is not used in the scientific literature.

testis (TES-tis)

One of two egg-shaped glands found inside the scrotum that produce sperm and male hormones. Also called a testicle.

testosterone (tes-TOS-ter-own)

A hormone that promotes the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics.

tetanus toxoid

A substance that is derived from the toxin released by the bacterium that causes the disease tetanus. It is used as a vaccine to prevent tetanus or to help boost the immune response to other vaccines.

tetracycline

An antibiotic drug used to treat infection.

tetrahydrouridine

A substance that makes tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy and is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called cytidine deaminase inhibitors, multidrug resistance modulators, and radiosensitizers.

TG4010

A substance that is being studied as an anticancer drug.

thalamus (THAL-a-muss)

An area of the brain that helps process information from the senses and transmit it to other parts of the brain.

thalidomide

A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors. It prevents the growth of new blood vessels into a solid tumor.

theophylline

A drug used to improve breathing in people who are short of breath. It belongs to the family of drugs called bronchodilators or respiratory smooth muscle relaxants.

therapeutic (THAYR-uh-PYOO-tik)

Having to do with treating disease and helping healing take place.

therapy

Treatment.

thermal ablation

A procedure using heat to remove tissue or a part of the body, or destroy its function. For example, to remove the lining of the uterus, a catheter is inserted through the cervix into the uterus, a balloon at the end of the catheter is inflated, and fluid inside the balloon is heated to destroy the lining of the uterus.

thermography

In medicine, a procedure in which a heat-sensing infrared camera is used to record the surface heat produced by different parts of the body. Abnormal tissue growth can cause temperature changes, which may show up on the thermogram. Thermography may be used to diagnose breast cancer and other tumors.

thioguanine

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites.

thiotepa

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

third-line therapy

Treatment that is given when both initial treatment (first-line therapy) and subsequent treatment (second-line therapy) don't work, or stop working.

thoracentesis (thor-a-sen-TEE-sis)

Removal of fluid from the pleural cavity through a needle inserted between the ribs.

thoracic (thor-ASS-ik)

Having to do with the chest.

thoracoscopy

The use of a thin, lighted tube (called an endoscope) to examine the inside of the chest.

thoracotomy (thor-a-KAH-toe-mee)

An operation to open the chest.

throat (throte)

The hollow tube inside the neck that starts behind the nose and ends at the top of the trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (the tube that goes to the stomach). The throat is about 5 inches long, depending on body size. Also called the pharynx.

throat cancer

Cancer that forms in tissues of the pharynx (the hollow tube inside the neck that starts behind the nose and ends at the top of the windpipe and esophagus). Throat cancer includes cancer of the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose), the oropharynx (the middle part of the pharynx), and the hypopharynx (the bottom part of the pharynx). Most throat cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (cancer that begins in flat cells lining the pharynx). Also called pharyngeal cancer.

thrombocyte (THROM-bo-site)

A type of blood cell that helps prevent bleeding by causing blood clots to form. Also called a platelet.

thrombocytopenia (THROM-boh-sy-toh-PEE-nee-uh)

A decrease in the number of platelets in the blood that may result in easy bruising and excessive bleeding from wounds or bleeding in mucous membranes and other tissues.

thrombohemorrhagic event

A process that involves either a blood clot or bleeding, such as a heart attack or stroke.

thrombophlebitis (throm-bo-fleh-BY-tis)

Inflammation of a vein that occurs when a blood clot forms.

thrombopoietin

A colony-stimulating factor that stimulates the production of blood cells, especially platelets, during chemotherapy. It is a cytokine that belongs to the family of drugs called hematopoietic (blood forming) agents.

thrombosis (throm-BOW-sis)

The formation or presence of a blood clot inside a blood vessel.

thrush

A condition in which Candida albicans, a type of yeast, grows out of control in moist skin areas of the body. It is usually a result of a weakened immune system, but can be a side effect of chemotherapy or treatment with antibiotics. Thrush usually affects the mouth (oral thrush); however, rarely, it spreads throughout the entire body. Also called Candidiasis or Candidosis.

thymidine

A chemical compound found in DNA. Also used as treatment for mucositis.

thymidylate synthase inhibitor

A drug that blocks DNA synthesis and may prevent tumor cell growth. It is being studied as a treatment for cancer.

Thymitaq (THY-mih-tak)

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of liver cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called thymidylate synthase inhibitors. Also called AG337 and nolatrexed.

thymoma

A tumor of the thymus, an organ that is part of the lymphatic system and is located in the chest, behind the breastbone.

thymus

An organ that is part of the lymphatic system, in which T lymphocytes grow and multiply. The thymus is in the chest behind the breastbone.

Thyrogen®

A form of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that is made in the laboratory. It is used to test for remaining or recurring cancer cells in patients who have been treated for thyroid cancer. Also called thyrotropin alfa.

thyroglobulin (THIGH-roe-GLOB-yu-lin)

The form that thyroid hormone takes when stored in the cells of the thyroid. If the thyroid has been removed, thyroglobulin should not show up on a blood test. Doctors measure thyroglobulin level in blood to detect thyroid cancer cells that remain in the body after treatment.

thyroid (THY-royd)

A gland located beneath the voice box (larynx) that produces thyroid hormone. The thyroid helps regulate growth and metabolism.

thyroid cancer (THY-royd KAN-ser)

Cancer that forms in the thyroid gland (an organ at the base of the throat that makes hormones that help control heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight). Four main types of thyroid cancer are papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. The four types are based on how the cancer cells look under a microscope.

thyroid follicular cell (THY-royd foh-LIK-yoo-ler)

A type of cell in the thyroid. Thyroid follicular cells make thyroid hormone.

thyroid gland (THY-royd...)

A gland located beneath the voice box (larynx) that produces thyroid hormone. The thyroid helps regulate growth and metabolism.

thyroid hormone (THY-royd HOR-mone)

A hormone that affects heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight. Thyroid hormone is made by the thyroid gland and can also be made in the laboratory.

thyroidectomy (THY-royd-EK-toh-mee)

Surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid.

thyroid-stimulating hormone

TSH. A hormone produced by the pituitary gland. TSH stimulates the release of thyroid hormone from thyroglobulin. It also stimulates the growth of thyroid follicular cells. An abnormal TSH level may mean that the thyroid hormonal regulation system is out of control, usually as a result of a benign condition (hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism).

thyrotropin alfa

A form of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that is made in the laboratory. It is used to test for remaining or recurring cancer cells in patients who have been treated for thyroid cancer. Also called Thyrogen®.

tiazofurin

An anticancer drug being studied to stop cell growth.

time to progression

A measure of time after a disease is diagnosed (or treated) until the disease starts to get worse.

tin ethyl etiopurpurin

An anticancer drug that is also used in cancer prevention. It belongs to the family of drugs called photosensitizing agents. Also called SnET2.

tin Sn 117m DTPA

A radioactive chemical being studied to treat bone pain associated with cancer.

tinidazole

A drug used to treat protozoal infections, such as amebiasis, giardiasis, and trichomoniasis. It belongs to a family of drugs called antiprotozoal agents. Tinidazole is also being evaluated in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections in people with low-grade gastric lymphoma.

tipifarnib

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It inhibits the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. It belongs to the family of drugs called enzyme inhibitors. Also called R115777.

tirapazamine

A drug that makes tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy.

tissue (TISH-oo)

A group or layer of cells that work together to perform a specific function.

tissue flap reconstruction

A type of breast reconstruction in which a flap of tissue is surgically moved from another area of the body to the chest, and formed into a new breast mound.

tissue plasminogen activator

tPA. A protein that is made by the body and that helps dissolve blood clots. It can also be made in the laboratory and is used in the treatment of heart attack and stroke. It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer. tPA belongs to the family of drugs called systemic thrombolytic agents. Also called recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA), Activase, and Alteplase.

TLK286

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called glutathione analogs. Also called Telcyta.

TM

Transcendental meditation. A mental technique used to promote relaxation, reduce stress, and improve quality of life.

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to disease).

TNFerade

A gene therapy product that is being studied in combination with radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer.

TNM staging system

A system for describing the extent of cancer in a patient's body. T describes the size of the tumor and whether it has invaded nearby tissue, N describes any lymph nodes that are involved, and M describes metastasis (spread of cancer from one body part to another).

TNP-470

A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors. It prevents the growth of new blood vessels into a solid tumor.

tobacco (tuh-BA-koh)

Nicotiana tabacum. A plant with leaves that have high levels of the addictive chemical nicotine. The leaves may be smoked (in cigarettes, cigars, and pipes), applied to the gums (as dipping and chewing tobacco), or inhaled (as snuff). Tobacco leaves also contain many cancer-causing chemicals, and tobacco use and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke have been linked to many types of cancer and other diseases.

tocladesine

A substance that has been studied as an anticancer drug. It is an analog of a substance that occurs naturally in the body (cyclic adenosine monophosphate).

tomography (tuh-MAH-gra-fee)

A series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body; the pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine.

tongue cancer

Cancer that begins in the tongue. When the cancer begins in the front two-thirds of the tongue, it is considered to be a type of oral cavity cancer; when the cancer begins in the back third of the tongue, it is considered to be a type of oropharyngeal or throat cancer.

tonsil

One of two small masses of lymphoid tissue on either side of the throat.

topical

On the surface of the body.

topical chemotherapy (TAH-pih-kul KEE-moh-THAYR-uh-pee)

Treatment with anticancer drugs in a lotion or cream applied to the skin.

topoisomerase inhibitor (TOH-poh-i-SAH-muh-raze)

A substance that blocks topoisomerase enzymes, which are involved in DNA structure and cell growth. Certain topoisomerase inhibitors are used to treat some types of cancer.

topotecan (toh-poh-TEE-kan)

A drug used to treat some types of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors. Also called Hycamtin.

toremifene

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antiestrogens. Toremifene blocks the effect of the hormone estrogen in the body. It may help control some cancers from growing, and it may delay or reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.

tositumomab TAH-sih-TOO-moh-mab

A monoclonal antibody that is used in the treatment of certain types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. When tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab (a form of tositumomab that has been chemically changed by adding radioactive iodine) are given together, the combination is called the Bexxar regimen.

total androgen blockade

Therapy used to eliminate male sex hormones (androgens) in the body. This may be done with surgery, hormonal therapy, or a combination.

total estrogen blockade

Therapy used to eliminate estrogen in the body. This may be done with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these procedures.

total hysterectomy (hiss-ter-EK-toe-mee)

Surgery to remove the entire uterus, including the cervix. Sometimes, not all of the cervix is removed. Also called complete hysterectomy.

total laryngectomy (LAIR-in-JEK-tuh-mee)

An operation to remove all of the larynx (voice box).

total mastectomy (mas-TEK-toe-mee)

Removal of the breast. Also called simple mastectomy.

total nodal irradiation

Radiation therapy to the mantle field, the spleen, the lymph nodes in the upper abdomen, and the lymph nodes in the pelvic area.

total pancreatectomy

Surgery to remove the entire pancreas. Part of the stomach, part of the small intestine, the common bile duct, gallbladder, spleen, and nearby lymph nodes also are removed.

total parenteral nutrition

TPN. A form of nutrition that is delivered into a vein. Total parenteral nutrition does not use the digestive system. It may be given to people who are unable to absorb nutrients through the intestinal tract because of vomiting that won't stop, severe diarrhea, or intestinal disease. It may also be given to those undergoing high-dose chemotherapy or radiation and bone marrow transplantation. It is possible to give all of the protein, calories, vitamins and minerals a person needs using total parenteral nutrition. Also known as hyperalimentation or parenteral nutrition.

total skin electron beam radiation therapy

TSEB therapy. A type of radiation therapy using electrons that is directed at the entire surface of the body. This type of radiation goes into the outer layers of the skin, but does not go deeper into tissues and organs below the skin.

total-body irradiation

Radiation therapy to the entire body. It is usually followed by bone marrow or peripheral stem cell transplantation.

totipotent

Having to do with cells that are able to develop into any type of cell found in the body.

toxic

Having to do with poison or something harmful to the body. Toxic substances usually cause unwanted side effects.

toxicity (tox-IH-sih-tee)

The extent to which something is poisonous or harmful.

toxin

A poison produced by certain animals, plants, or bacteria.

TP-38 immunotoxin

A substance that combines a protein that binds to certain tumor cells with a bacterial toxin that kills tumor cells. It is being studied in the treatment of brain tumors.

tPA

Tissue plasminogen activator. A protein that is made by the body and that helps dissolve blood clots. It can also be made in the laboratory and is used in the treatment of heart attack and stroke. It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer. tPA belongs to the family of drugs called systemic thrombolytic agents. Also called recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA), Activase, and Alteplase.

TPA

12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. A substance that is being studied in the treatment of hematologic cancers. It belongs to the family of drugs called phorbol esters.

TPN

Total parenteral nutrition. A form of nutrition that is delivered into a vein. TPN does not use the digestive system. It may be given to people who are unable to absorb nutrients through the intestinal tract because of vomiting that won't stop, severe diarrhea, or intestinal disease. It may also be given to those undergoing high-dose chemotherapy or radiation and bone marrow transplantation. It is possible to give all of the protein, calories, vitamins and minerals a person needs using TPN. Also known as hyperalimentation or parenteral nutrition.

trabecular cancer

A rare type of cancer that forms on or just beneath the skin and in hair follicles. Trabecular cancer is a type of Merkel cell cancer.

trace element

A chemical found in very small amounts in a given substance. Organisms need certain trace elements to survive.

tracer

A substance (such as a radioisotope) used in imaging procedures.

trach tube

A 2-inch- to 3-inch-long curved metal or plastic tube placed in a surgically created opening (tracheostomy) in the windpipe to keep it open. Also called a tracheostomy tube.

trachea (TRAY-kee-uh)

The airway that leads from the larynx to the lungs. Also called the windpipe.

tracheoesophageal puncture (TRAY-kee-o-ee-SOF-uh-JEE-ul PUNK-chur)

A small opening made by a surgeon between the esophagus and the trachea. A valve keeps food out of the trachea but lets air into the esophagus for esophageal speech.

tracheostomy (TRAY-kee-AHS-toe-mee)

Surgery to create an opening (stoma) into the windpipe. The opening itself may also be called a tracheostomy.

tracheostomy button (TRAY-kee-AHS-toe-mee)

A 0.5-inch- to 1.5-inch-long plastic tube placed in a surgically created opening (tracheostomy) in the windpipe to keep it open.

tracheostomy tube (TRAY-kee-AHS-tuh-mee toob)

A 2-inch- to 3-inch-long curved metal or plastic tube placed in a surgically created opening (tracheostomy) in the windpipe to keep it open. Also called a trach ("trake") tube.

transabdominal ultrasound

A procedure used to examine the organs in the abdomen. The ultrasound device is pressed firmly against the skin of the abdomen. Sound waves from the device bounce off tissues and create echoes. A computer uses the echoes to make a picture called a sonogram.

transcendental meditation

TM. A mental technique used to promote relaxation, reduce stress, and improve quality of life.

transcription

In biology, the process by which a cell makes an RNA copy of a sequence of DNA that is a gene.

transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation

TENS. A technique in which mild electric currents are applied to some areas of the skin by a small power pack connected to two electrodes.

transdermal

Through the skin.

transferrin-CRM107

A substance created by linking a form of diphtheria toxin to transferrin (a protein that binds to and is taken up by rapidly growing cells, such as tumor cells). Once inside, the toxin portion of the molecule kills the tumor cells. It is being studied in the treatment of brain tumors. It belongs to the family of drugs called ligand-targeted toxin conjugates.

transformation

The change that a normal cell undergoes as it becomes malignant.

transfusion (trans-FYOO-zhun)

The infusion of components of blood or whole blood into the bloodstream. The blood may be donated from another person, or it may have been taken from the person earlier and stored until needed.

transitional cell

A cell that varies in shape depending on whether the tissue is being stretched. Transitional cells may be stretched without breaking apart. They line hollow organs such as the bladder.

transitional cell carcinoma

A type of cancer that develops in the lining of the bladder, ureter, or renal pelvis (the part of the kidney that collects, holds, and drains urine).

transperineal biopsy

A procedure in which a sample of tissue is removed from the prostate for examination under a microscope. The sample is removed with a thin needle that is inserted through the skin between the scrotum and rectum and into the prostate.

transplant surgeon

A doctor who specializes in transplantation surgery. The surgeon replaces a patient's organ with an organ from another person.

transplantation

The replacement of tissue with tissue from the person's own body or from another person.

transrectal biopsy (TRANS-REK-tal BY-op-see)

A procedure in which a sample of tissue is removed from the prostate using a thin needle that is inserted through the rectum and into the prostate. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is usually used to guide the needle. The sample is examined under a microscope to see if it contains cancer.

transrectal ultrasound (TRANS-REK-tal)

TRUS. A procedure in which a probe that sends out high-energy sound waves is inserted into the rectum. The sound waves are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissue called a sonogram. TRUS is used to look for abnormalities in the rectum and nearby structures, including the prostate. Also called endorectal ultrasound.

transurethral biopsy

A procedure in which a sample of tissue is removed from the prostate for examination under a microscope. A thin, lighted tube is inserted through the urethra into the prostate, and a small piece of tissue is removed with a cutting loop.

transurethral needle ablation

A procedure that is used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). A small probe that gives off low-level radiofrequency energy is inserted through the urethra into the prostate. The energy from the probe heats and destroys the abnormal prostate tissue without damaging the urethra. Also called transurethral radiofrequency ablation.

transurethral radiofrequency ablation (TRANZ-yuh-REE-thrul RAY-dee-oh-FREE-kwen-see a-BLAY-shun)

A procedure that is used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). A small probe that gives off low-level radiofrequency energy is inserted through the urethra into the prostate. The energy from the probe heats and destroys the abnormal prostate tissue without damaging the urethra. Also called transurethral needle ablation.

transurethral resection (TRANZ-yoo-REE-thral ree-SEK-shun)

Surgery performed with a special instrument inserted through the urethra. Also called TUR.

transurethral resection of the prostate (TRANZ-yoo-REE-thral ree-SEK-shun)

TURP. A surgical procedure to remove tissue from the prostate using an instrument inserted through the urethra.

transvaginal sonography (tranz-VA-jih-nul soh-NAH-gruh-fee)

TVS. A procedure used to examine the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and bladder. An instrument is inserted into the vagina that causes sound waves to bounce off organs inside the pelvis. These sound waves create echoes that are sent to a computer, which creates a picture called a sonogram. Also called transvaginal ultrasound.

transvaginal ultrasound (tranz-VA-jih- nul UL-tra-SOWND)

A procedure used to examine the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and bladder. An instrument is inserted into the vagina that causes sound waves to bounce off organs inside the pelvis. These sound waves create echoes that are sent to a computer, which creates a picture called a sonogram. Also called transvaginal sonography (TVS).

trastuzumab (tras-TOO-zuh-mab)

A type of monoclonal antibody used to detect or treat some types of cancer. Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced substances that can locate and bind to cancer cells. Trastuzumab blocks the effects of the growth factor protein HER2, which transmits growth signals to breast cancer cells. Also called Herceptin.

Traumeel® S

A substance that contains minerals and extracts of 14 plants, including belladonna, arnica, St. John's wort, and Echinacea. It is being studied as a mouth rinse treatment for oral mucositis (painful mouth sores) caused by cancer therapy. It is known as a homeopathic remedy.

treatment field

In radiation therapy, the place on the body where the radiation beam is aimed.

treosulfan

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

trephine (TREE-fine)

A surgical tool used to cut out circular pieces of bone or other tissue.

tretinoin

A form of vitamin A that is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia, usually together with other drugs, and to treat acne. It is also being studied in the treatment and prevention of other types of cancer. Also called all-trans retinoic acid.

triacetyluridine (try-ASS-uh-til-YOOR-ih-deen)

A substance that is being studied for its ability to protect against the gastrointestinal side effects caused by fluorouracil. Also called PN401. It belongs to the family of drugs called cytoprotective agents.

triamcinolone (try-am-SIN-oh-lone)

A substance that is being studied for the prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer. It is an anti-inflammatory drug that is applied to the skin to relieve irritation, rashes, and infections. It belongs to the family of drugs called topical corticosteroids.

Triapine®

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors. Also called 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone and 3-AP.

tributyrin

A triglyceride drug that may inhibit cell growth and induce cell differentiation. Differentiating agents may be effective in changing cancer cells back into normal cells.

trichothiodystrophy

A hereditary condition characterized by sparse and brittle hair, short stature, and mental retardation.

Trifolium pratense (try-FOH-lee-um pray-TEN-see)

A plant whose flowers have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It is being studied in the relief of menopausal symptoms and may have anticancer effects. Also called red clover, purple clover, and wild clover.

trigeminal nerve

The main sensory nerve of the head and face, and the motor nerve of the muscles used in chewing. Also called the fifth cranial nerve.

triiodothyronine

A thyroid hormone. Also called liothyronine sodium or T-3.

trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

An antibiotic drug used to treat infection and prevent pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

trimetrexate glucuronate

A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. It is used in the treatment of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and is being studied in the treatment of cancer.

triptorelin

A hormonal anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called gonadotropin-releasing analogs.

tropisetron

A substance that is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. It is not available in the United States. It belongs to the family of drugs called 5-HT3 receptor blockers.

troxacitabine

A drug being studied for use as an anticancer agent.

TRUS

Transrectal ultrasound. A procedure in which a probe that sends out high-energy sound waves is inserted into the rectum. The sound waves are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissue called a sonogram. TRUS is used to look for abnormalities in the rectum and nearby structures, including the prostate. Also called endorectal ultrasound.

TSEB therapy

Total skin electron beam radiation therapy. A type of radiation therapy using electrons that is directed at the entire surface of the body. This type of radiation goes into the outer layers of the skin, but does not go deeper into tissues and organs below the skin.

TTI-237

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called mitotic inhibitors. Also called antimitotic or antimicrotubule agents.

tubal ligation (TOO-bul lye-GAY-shun)

An operation to tie the fallopian tubes closed. This procedure prevents pregnancy by blocking the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the uterus.

tubefeeding

A type of enteral nutrition (nutrition that is delivered into the digestive system in a liquid form). For tubefeeding, a small tube may be placed through the nose into the stomach or the small intestine. Sometimes it is surgically placed into the stomach or the intestinal tract through an opening made on the outside of the abdomen, depending on how long it will be used. People who are unable to meet their needs with food and beverages alone, and who do not have vomiting or uncontrollable diarrhea may be given tubefeedings. Tubefeeding can be used to add to what a person is able to eat or can be the only source of nutrition.

tuberous sclerosis

A genetic disorder in which benign (noncancerous) tumors form in the kidneys, brain, eyes, heart, lungs, and skin. This disease can cause seizures, mental disabilities, and different types of skin lesions.

tubulovillous adenoma

A type of polyp that grows in the colon and other places in the gastrointestinal tract and sometimes in other parts of the body. These adenomas may become malignant (cancerous).

tumor (TOO-mer)

An abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Tumors may be benign (not cancerous), or malignant (cancerous). Also called neoplasm.

tumor antigen vaccine (.AN-tih-JEN.)

A vaccine made of cancer cells, parts of cancer cells, or pure tumor antigens (substances isolated from tumor cells). A tumor antigen vaccine may stimulate the body's immune system to find and kill cancer cells.

tumor board review

A treatment planning approach in which a number of doctors who are experts in different specialties (disciplines) review and discuss the medical condition and treatment options of a patient. In cancer treatment, a tumor board review may include that of a medical oncologist (who provides cancer treatment with drugs), a surgical oncologist (who provides cancer treatment with surgery), and a radiation oncologist (who provides cancer treatment with radiation). Also called a multidisciplinary opinion.

tumor burden

Refers to the number of cancer cells, the size of a tumor, or the amount of cancer in the body. Also called tumor load.

tumor debulking

Surgically removing as much of the tumor as possible.

tumor infiltrating lymphocyte

A white blood cell that has left the bloodstream and migrated into a tumor.

tumor initiation (TOO-mer ih-NIH-shee-AY-shun)

A process in which normal cells are changed so that they are able to form tumors. Substances that cause cancer can be tumor initiators.

tumor load

Refers to the number of cancer cells, the size of a tumor, or the amount of cancer in the body. Also called tumor burden.

tumor marker

A substance sometimes found in the blood, other body fluids, or tissues. A high level of tumor marker may mean that a certain type of cancer is in the body. Examples of tumor markers include CA 125 (ovarian cancer), CA 15-3 (breast cancer), CEA (ovarian, lung, breast, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract cancers), and PSA (prostate cancer). Also called biomarker.

tumor model (TOO-mer MAH-dul)

Cells, tissues, or animals used to study the development and progression of cancer, and to test new treatments before they are given to humans. Animals with transplanted human tumors or other tissues are called xenograft models.

tumor necrosis factor (TOO-mer ne-KRO-sis)

A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to disease). Three types of tumor necrosis factor have been identified: alpha, beta, and gamma. Tumor necrosis factor seems to play a role in the breakdown of cancer cells.

tumor promotion (TOO-mer pruh-MOE-shun)

A process in which existing tumors are stimulated to grow. Tumor promoters are not able to cause tumors to form.

tumor suppressor gene (TOO-mer suh-PREH-ser jeen)

A type of gene (unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring) that helps control cell growth. Blocking the action of tumor suppressor genes may lead to cancer.

tumor vasculature-targeted tumor necrosis factor alpha

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made by linking tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to a peptide. The peptide binds to tumor blood vessels and TNF damages them. It belongs to the family of drugs called biological response modifiers. Also called NGR-TNF.

tumor-derived

Taken from an individual's own tumor tissue; may be used in the development of a vaccine that enhances the body's ability to build an immune response to the tumor.

tumor-specific antigen

A protein or other molecule that is unique to cancer cells or is much more abundant in them. These molecules are usually found in the plasma (outer) membrane, and they are thought to be potential targets for immunotherapy or other types of anticancer treatment.

TUR

Surgery performed with a special instrument inserted through the urethra. Also called transurethral resection.

Turkish rhubarb

Rheum palmatum or Rheum officinale. The root of this plant has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Also called rhubarb, da-huang, Chinese rhubarb, and Indian rhubarb.

TURP

Transurethral resection of the prostate. A surgical procedure to remove tissue from the prostate using an instrument inserted through the urethra.

TVS

Transvaginal sonography. A procedure used to examine the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and bladder. An instrument is inserted into the vagina that causes sound waves to bounce off organs inside the pelvis. These sound waves create echoes that are sent to a computer, which creates a picture called a sonogram. Also called transvaginal ultrasound.

tympanites

Swelling of the abdomen caused by gas in the intestines or peritoneal cavity. Also called meteorism.

tyrosinase peptide (ty-RAH-sih-NAYZ.)

A protein that is made from tumor cells and is used in a vaccine against melanoma. A tyrosinase peptide vaccine may stimulate the body's immune system to find and kill melanoma cells.

tyrosine kinase inhibitor

A drug that interferes with cell communication and growth and may prevent tumor growth. Some tyrosine kinase inhibitors are used to treat cancer.

TZT-1027
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called tubulin inhibitors. Also called soblidotin.